Comparative Assessment of Stress Levels in Residential and Nonresidential Sports Men and Women: A Comprehensive Study




Stress, Residential, Nonresidential, sportsmen and sportswomen



Back ground: Sports have witnessed remarkable development over the past few decades, primarily attributed to the pivotal role played by mental prowess. Sports individuals' intellectual quotient (IQ) and mental stability have become integral factors in their performance. This study focuses on the psychological aspect of stress in sports, analyzing the stress levels among residential and nonresidential male and female college and university players in Tamil Nadu.

Purpose: This study aims to examine the stress levels exhibited by sportsmen and women during training and competition, emphasizing the need for psychological comprehension and counseling.

Material and methodology: The survey involved 1600 subjects, including 400 residential men players, 400 residential women players, 400 nonresidential men players, and 400 nonresidential women players from various universities and colleges. A psychological stress coping questionnaire was administered to assess stress levels, including the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Reena Kaul and Bedi's stress scale (2001).

Results: Significant differences in stress levels were observed among residential and nonresidential men players, with residential men players demonstrating higher stress levels (Mean = 50.14, SD = 0.09) compared to nonresidential men players (Mean = 46.41, SD = 0.15; t-value = 408.04, p < 0.05). A similar pattern was found among residential and nonresidential women players, with residential women players experiencing lower stress levels (Mean = 46.06, SD = 0.77) compared to nonresidential women players (Mean = 48.51, SD = 0.81; t-value = 41.64, p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference in stress levels was observed between residential men and women players (t-value = 40.58, p < 0.05) and nonresidential men and women players (t-value = 8.74, p < 0.05). The analysis of stress variables revealed a substantial mean difference among all four groups, comprising men and women, residential and nonresidential university and college players (F-value = 4486.25, p < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study concludes significant variations in stress levels among residential and nonresidential male and female college and university players in Tamil Nadu. The findings are supported by statistically significant differences in stress experiences within these player groups, emphasizing the need for psychological support and interventions in sports.


Chandra, P. (2019). A study of stress among hostellers. International Journal of Science and Research, 8(2), 314-319.

Jones, J., & Hardy, L. E. (1990). Stress and performance in sport. John Wiley & Sons.

Blanco, C., Okuda, M., Wright, C., Hasin, D. S., Grant, B. F., Liu, S.-M.,. (2008). Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: results from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 65, 1429–1437.

Milojevich, H. M., and Lukowski, A. F. (2016). Sleep and mental health in undergraduate students with generally healthy sleep habits. PLoS ONE 11:e0156372.

Petrov, M. E., Lichstein, K. L., and Baldwin, C. M. (2014). Prevalence of sleep disorders by sex and ethnicity among older adolescents and emerging adults: relations to daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health. J. Adolesc. 37, 587–597.

Feld, L. D., and Shusterman, A. (2015). Into the pressure cooker: student stress in college preparatory high schools. J. Adolesc. 41, 31–42.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Greenglass, E. R. (2001). Introduction to special issue on burnout and health. Psychology and health, 16(5), 501-510.

Centers for disease control and prevention Coping with Stress. (2024)

Sapolsky, R. (2003). Taming Stress. Scientific American, 289, 88-98.

Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2007). Recurrence of major depression in adolescence and early adulthood, and later mental health, educational, and economic outcomes. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191(4), 335-342.

Tatar, M. (1995). Parental views of popularity and stress among adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 18(6), 679-686.

Singh, B. N. (1966). Manifest anxiety and University examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 3(2), 70-76.

Spielberger, C. D. (1962). The effects of manifest anxiety on the academic achievement of college students. Mental Hygiene. New York.

Lesko, w. a., & Summerfield, L. (1989) Academic Stress and health changes in female college students. Health Education, 20, 18-21.

Levens, S. M., Elrahal, F., & Sagui, S. J. (2016). The role of family support and perceived stress reactivity in predicting depression in college freshman. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 35(4), 342-355.

Reece, B. Howie (2010). Effective Human Relation-Interpersonal and Organizational Applications, Cengage Learning, 304.

Schneiderman N, Ironson G, Siegel SD. (2005). Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 1(1), 607-628.

Seyedfatemi, N., Tafreshi, M., & Hagani, H. (2007). Experienced stressors and coping strategies among Iranian nursing students. BMC Nursing, 6, 1-10.

Shrestha, R., Timalsina, S., Shakya, R., Shrestha, N., Kotera, Y., Hashemy, T., & Ozaki, A. (2023). Stress and Coping Mechanism among Students Residing in Private School Hostels. Mental Illness.

Busari, A. O. (2014). Academic stress among undergraduate students: Measuring the effects of stress inoculation techniques. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(27 P2), 599.

Kagan, J., & Baird, A. (2004). Brain and behavioral development during childhood.

Ekpenyong, C. E., Daniel, N. E., & Aribo, E. O. (2013). Associations between academic stressors, reaction to stress, coping strategies and musculoskeletal disorders among college students. Ethiopian journal of health sciences, 23(2), 98-112.

Andersen, B. L., Farrar, W. B., Golden-Kreutz, D., Kutz, L. A., MacCallum, R., Courtney, M. E., & Glaser, R. (1998). Stress and immune responses after surgical treatment for regional breast cancer. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 90(1), 30-36.

Andersen, B. L., Golden-Kreutz, D. M., Emery, C. F., & Thiel, D. L. (2009). Biobehavioral intervention for cancer stress: conceptualization, components, and intervention strategies. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16(3), 253-265.

Kabir, A., Sultana, F., Ibrahim, M., Islam, M., Rahman, M., Islam, J., & Bayen, S. (2018). Evaluation of Stress, loneliness, and depression among residential and nonresidential students of Dhaka University: Case-control study. Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, 2(1), 1-6

Khan, Z., Lanin, A. B., & Ahmad, N. (2015). The Level of Stress in Male and Female School Students. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(13), 166-168.

Bhattarai, B., Maskey, S., & Lopchan, M. (2016). Stress and coping strategies among adolescents in private school, Chitwan, Nepal. Journal of Chitwan Medical College, 6(3), 51-55.

Kocayörük, E., Altıntas, E., & İçbay, M. A. (2015). The perceived parental support, autonomous-self and well-being of adolescents: A cluster-analysis approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1819-1828.

Myrtek, M., Weber, D., Brügner, G., & Müller, W. (1996). Occupational stress and strain of female students: results of physiological, behavioral, and psychological monitoring. Biological psychology, 42(3), 379-391.

Campbell, R. L., Svenson, L. W., & Jarvis, G. K. (1992). Perceived level of stress among university undergraduate students in Edmonton, Canada. Perceptual and motor skills, 75(2), 552-554.